Amodiaquine improves insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in diabetic model mice.
Jung, H. et al.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 1–14 (2018)
Although peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptors (PPARs)α/γ dual agonists can be beneficial for treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, their use is limited owing to various side effects, including body weight gain, edema, and heart failure. We aimed to demonstrate that amodiaquine, an antimalarial agent, has potential as a PPARα/γ dual agonist with low risk of adverse effects.
We screened a Prestwick library (Prestwick Chemical; Illkirch, France) to identify novel PPARα/γ dual agonists and selected amodiaquine (4‐[(7‐chloroquinolin‐4‐yl)amino]‐2‐[(diethylamino)methyl]phenol), which activated both PPAR‐α & ‐γ, for further investigation. We performed both in vitro, including glucose uptake assay and fatty acid oxidation assay, and in vivo studies to elucidate the anti‐diabetic and anti‐obesity effects of amodiaquine.
Amodiaquine selectively activated the transcriptional activities of PPARα/γ and enhanced both fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake without altering insulin secretion in vitro. In high‐fat diet‐induced obese and genetically modified obese/diabetic mice, amodiaquine not only remarkably ameliorated insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and fatty liver but also decreased body weight gain.
Our findings suggest that amodiaquine exerts beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism by concurrent activation of PPARα/γ. Furthermore, amodiaquine acts as an alternative insulin‐sensitizing agent with a positive influence on lipid metabolism and has potential to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes while reducing the risk of lipid abnormalities.